The Misfire Detection Monitor is an on-board strategy designed to monitor engine misfire and identify the specific cylinder in which the misfire has occurred. Misfire is defined as lack of combustion in a cylinder due to absence of spark, poor fuel metering, poor compression, or any other cause. The Misfire Detection Monitor will be enabled only when certain base engine conditions are first satisfied. Input from the Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT) or Cylinder Head Temperature (CHT) , Mass Air Flow (MAF) and Crankshaft Position (CKP) sensors is required to enable the monitor. The Misfire Detection Monitor is also performed during on demand self-test.
The Powertrain Control Module (PCM) synchronized ignition spark is based on information received from the CKP sensor. The CKP signal generated is also the main input used in determining cylinder misfire.
The input signal generated by the CKP sensor is derived by sensing the passage of teeth from the crankshaft position wheel mounted on the end of the crankshaft.
The input signal to the Powertrain Control Module (PCM) is then used to calculate the time between CKP edges and also crankshaft rotational velocity and acceleration. By comparing the accelerations of each cylinder event, the power loss of each cylinder is determined. When the power loss of a particular cylinder is sufficiently less than a calibrated value and other criteria is met, then the suspect cylinder is determined to have misfired.
Misfire type A: Upon detection of a Misfire type A (200 revolutions) which would cause catalyst damage, the Malfunction Indicator Lamp(MIL) will blink once per second during the actual misfire, and a Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC) will be stored.
Misfire type B:
Upon detection of a Misfire type B (1000 revolutions) which will exceed the emissions threshold or cause a vehicle to fail an inspection and maintenance tailpipe emissions test, the MIL will illuminate and a Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC) will be stored.
The DTC associated with multiple cylinder misfire for a Type A or Type B misfire is DTC P0300. The DTCs associated with an individual cylinder misfire for a Type A or Type B misfire are DTCs P0301, P0302, P0303, P0304, P0305, P0306, P0307, P0306, P0309 and P0310.