Your Vehicle: 2001 Ford Escort ZX2 L4-2.0L DOHC VIN 3
Vehicle » Powertrain Management » Computers and Control Systems » Description and Operation » Standard Models (Non BI-Fuel) » Powertrain Control Hardware  
  Powertrain Control Hardware  

Powertrain Control Hardware

Constant Control Relay Module

The Constant Control Relay Module (CCRM) interfaces with the Electronic Engine Control (EC) system to provide Vehicle Power (VPWR) to the Powertrain Control Module (PCM) and the Electronic EC system, and for the control of the cooling tan and A/C clutch. The CCRM also contains the Fuel Pump Driver Module (FPDM) power supply relay, which supplies power to the FPDM. If any of the internal components of the CCRM fail, the entire unit must be replaced. The descriptions of the specific CCRM functions, as well as the Dual Function A/C high pressure switch are found under the individual hardware - Powertrain Control Module (PCM) inputs and outputs.

Fuel Pump Driver Module

NOTE: For the LS6/LS8 the FPDM functions are incorporated in the Rear Electronic Module (REM) . Fuel pump operation is the same as applications using the stand-alone FPDM. The REM will, however, communicate diagnostic information through the BUS +/- circuits (SCP) instead of using a Fuel Pump Monitor (FPM) circuit.

The Fuel Pump Driver Module (FPDM) receives a duty cycle signal from the PCM and controls the fuel pump operation in relation to this duty cycle. This results in variable speed fuel pump operation. The FPDM sends diagnostic information to the PCM on the fuel pump monitor circuit. For additional information, refer to PCM Outputs, Fuel Pump and PCM Inputs, Fuel Pump Monitor. See: Description and Operation\Standard Models (Non BI-Fuel)\PCM Outputs See: Description and Operation\Standard Models (Non BI-Fuel)\PCM Inputs

Generic Electronic Module

For information on the generic electronic module, refer to the description of the Transfer Case 4x4 System.

Natural Gas (NG) Vehicle Module

Natural Gas (NG) Vehicle Module

The Natural Gas (NG) vehicle module (Figure 17) provides two functions. The first function operates the fuel injectors and is referred to as the Injector Driver Module (IDM) . The second function sends a fuel level indicator signal to drive the fuel gauge and is called the Fuel Indicator Module (FIM) . IDM NG vehicle fuel indicator driver signals are based on Powertrain Control Module (PCM) fuel injector driver signals and are controlled directly by the corresponding injector drivers in the PCM. The IDM must be used to provide the NG fuel injectors with the required high current necessary for proper operation. The greater demand of NG fuel injector current warrants an increased size of the injector driver and increased heat dissipation. Given these conditions, the PCM would not be suitable for placement of these drivers. The IDM closely resembles the Electronic Engine Control IV PCM module in appearance.

The IDM injector drivers are capable of controlling the amount of current flow to each NG fuel injector. Once the fuel injector is open, the IDM NG fuel injector driver will reduce current flow sufficient to continue to hold the fuel injector open. This is done by the IDM in an effort to reduce heat. If the IDM driver does not detect the required peak current to initially open the NG fuel injector within a specified amount of time, the IDM driver will drop current to fuel injector hold open current.

The Fuel Indicator Module (FIM) is not part of the powertrain control subsystem and will not be discussed here.

Typical Powertrain Control Module (PCM)

150 - Pin PCM

150 - Pin PCM Power and Grounds, Part 1

150 - Pin PCM Power and Grounds, Part 2

Powertrain Control Module

The center of the Electronic EC system is a microprocessor called the Powertrain Control Module (PCM) . LS6/LS8 and 2002 Explorer/Mountaineer applications use a 150-pin PCM (Figure 19). This PCM will have three separate electrical harness connectors. All other applications will continue to use the standard 104-pin PCM (Figure 18). The PCM receives input from sensors and other electronic components (switches, relays). Based on information received and programmed into its memory, the PCM generates output signals to control various relays, solenoids and actuators.

Keep Alive Memory (KAM)

The PCM stores information in Keep Alive Memory (a memory integrated circuit chip) about vehicle operating conditions, and then uses this information to compensate for component variability. Keep Alive Memory remains powered when the ignition switch is off so that this information is not lost.

Hardware Limited Operation Strategy (HLOS)

This system of special circuitry provides minimal engine operation should the PCM (mainly the Central Processing Unit (CPU) or (EEPROM) stop functioning correctly. All modes of Self-Test are not functional at this time. Electronic hardware is in control of the system while in HLOS.

HLOS Allowable Output Functions:

  • Spark output controlled directly by the Crankshaft Position (CKP) signal.
  • Fixed fuel pulse width synchronized with the CKP signal.
  • Fuel pump relay energized.
  • Idle speed control output signal functional.

HLOS Disabled Outputs To Default State:

  • EGR solenoids
  • No torque converter clutch lock-up

PCM Locations

  • Focus - passenger side behind kick panel.
  • Escort - passenger side under instrument panel.
  • Cougar, Taurus/Sable, Windstar, 5.4L F-Series - behind glove compartment (access from engine compartment dash panel) on passenger side.
  • Mustang - behind kick panel cover on passenger side, near instrument panel.
  • Crown Victoria/Grand Marquis - behind kick panel cover on driver side, near instrument panel.
  • Continental, Town Car - behind instrument panel (cowl), center to both driver and passenger sides.
  • LS6/LS8 - above driver's feet, passenger side and near side cowl.
  • Ranger, Escape - behind instrument panel (cowl), center to both driver and passenger sides.
  • Explorer/Mountaineer - behind instrument panel (cowl), (access from engine compartment dash panel) on passenger side to center of vehicle.
  • All other F-Series, Expedition/Navigator/Blackwood - lower dash panel on passenger side.
  • Excursion - lower dash panel on driver side.
  • All E-Series - lower dash panel on driver side.

Integrated Electronic Ignition System

The Integrated Electronic Ignition (EI) System consists of a Crankshaft Position (CKP) sensor, coil pack(s), connecting wiring, and PCM. The Coil On Plug (COP) Integrated EI System uses a separate coil for each spark plug and each coil is mounted directly onto the plug. The COP Integrated EI System eliminates the need for spark plug wires but does require input from the Camshaft Position (CMP) sensor.

Power and Ground Signals

Vehicle Power

When the ignition switch is turned to the START or RUN position, battery positive voltage (B+) is applied to the coil of the Electronic EC power relay. Since the other end of the coil is wired to ground, this energizes the coil and closes the contacts of the Electronic EC power relay. Vehicle power (VPWR) is now sent to the PCM and the Electronic EC System as VPWR.

Vehicle Reference Voltage

The Vehicle Reference Voltage (VREF) is a positive voltage (about 5.0 volts ) that is output by the PCM. This is a consistent voltage that is used by the 3-wire sensors.

Mass Air Flow Return

The Mass Air Flow Return (MAF RTN) is a dedicated analog signal return from the Mass Air Flow (MAF) sensor. It serves as a ground offset for the analog voltage differential input by the MAF sensor to the PCM.

Signal Return

The signal Return (SIG RTN) is a dedicated ground circuit used by most Electronic EC sensors and some other inputs.

Power Ground

Power Ground (PWR GND) is an electric current path return for VPWR voltage circuit. The purpose of the PWR GND is to maintain sufficient voltage at the PCM.

Gold Plated Pins

NOTE : Damaged gold terminals should only be replaced with new gold terminals.

Some engine control hardware has gold plated pins on the connectors and mating harness connectors to improve electrical stability for low current draw circuits and to enhance corrosion resistance. The electronic EC components equipped with gold terminals will vary by vehicle application.